Hyperglycaemia occurs when the blood glucose level rises above 11.1 mmol/L.
Common causes of high blood glucose include:
- Missed insulin or not enough insulin
- Pump/pen not delivering insulin (blockage)
- Reduced physical activity
- Overtreating a hypo with too much carbohydrate
Symptoms of a high blood glucose level include:
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Blurred vision
The Personal Pupil’s Plan should outline an action plan for the management of high blood glucose levels should they occur during school.
See the Action Plan for Blood Glucose Level chart – it may help to get to know when and how to intervene, and whether the reaction is necessary.
When the blood glucose levels are high and there is not enough insulin working in the body to convert glucose into energy the body starts to break down fat stores for energy. When the body uses fat for energy it produces acids known as ketones. Ketones can make the child feel unwell and if they build up to high levels can lead to critical illness known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
It is important to test for ketones if the blood glucose is higher than 14.0 mmol/L or the pupil vomits (regardless of blood glucose level). If ketone levels are elevated i.e. greater than 0.6 mmol/L, action may be required.