Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition where the body stops making enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to allow glucose (from food) to move from the blood to the cells where it can be used for energy. Type 1 diabetes management is required 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Daily diabetes management involves replacing the bodies insulin using insulin injections or an insulin pump, monitoring glucose levels and carefully balancing carbohydrate intake in food (which raises blood glucose levels) and physical activity (which generally lowers blood glucose levels). The goal of effective diabetes management is to maintain blood glucose levels within a target range (which is individualised) but is generally between 4-8 mmol/L and avoiding low blood glucose levels (hypoglycaemia) and extreme high blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia).
For comprehensive information about type 1 diabetes, diabetes management, hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia read the HSE guideline: ‘Meeting the Care Needs of Primary School Children with Type 1 Diabetes during School Hours’.